All good light in your stable
The choice of the right barn lighting depends on several things. The most important are: investment budget, burning hours, light output, light color, energy consumption, type of animals and type of house. LED lighting is on the rise, but induction lighting is also an interesting option. After the exterior has been decorated first, the question arises as to what would be a good interior design. Separate light sources must be installed in all houses to better illuminate individual sections or to provide them with sufficient light. Light has a positive effect on farm animals and also influences the behavior and sexual activity of the animals with the course of the seasons.
Light in the stable
Stable windows and skylights provide natural daylight. Depending on the use of the room, the total window area is between 3 and 20% of the bottom surface of the room in question. Ridge lighting or roof windows ensure that the center of the barn is also supplied with light. However, most windows are located on the long sides of the building. Germing GmbH, for example, offers ridge lighting / aeration: so-called light plates with UV protection are fitted in the façade. This is a simple way to get extra daylight into the barn. Nevertheless, artificial light is still needed in various places.
In the past, fluorescent lighting was very popular. A TL is basically an energy-saving lamp and was therefore quite energy efficient. What people often did not realize is the fact that a conventional ballast (transformer) also drains energy considerably. A fluorescent tube of for example 58 watts consumes an average of around 70 watts. Another lighting source is Metal Halogen / High Pressure Sodium. These light sources have a higher light output, while the lifespan with about 8,000-10,000 burning hours is approximately the same as fluorescent lamps. The ballasts of these light sources also use a lot of extra energy. For example, a 250 watt conventionally lit Metal Halogen uses around 280 watts. “There are several factors that determine how to create a well-considered lighting plan.
You can think of the number of burning hours, the light output or the light color. Of course, energy consumption and investment costs also play a major role. Due to the absence of sensitive components such as filaments and electrodes, induction lighting has an extremely long lifespan of up to 100,000 burning hours with a lumendrop (light reduction) of only 15% to 20% over the entire lifespan. For comparison: a metal halide lamp has an average lifespan of 9000 burning hours and a lumendrop (light reduction) of 25% to 30% after only 6000 burning hours.
Due to this extremely long lifespan, the depreciation / replacement costs compared to other lighting sources are minimal. Other advantages of the induction lamps are that they switch on immediately at full power after switching on and can be switched on / off one after the other without any problems. In addition, these lamps have a very high lumen / watt ratio of 150 Pl / w (energy efficient). Induction also has a day-light color of 5000 Kelvin. LED lighting is also on the rise in the stables. High-quality LED lighting has a minimum of 60,000 burning hours with a low drop-back of up to 15% over the entire lifespan.
Pricing has also become more attractive. LED lighting gives slightly more light than induction lighting with the same power consumption, but induction lighting lasts much longer and induction lighting provides the most natural light in the stable. LED lighting is the only correct lighting solution for poultry houses.
The exposure intensity is measured in lux. The number of lamps required can be calculated on the basis of the average illuminance, the surface to be illuminated in m2, the luminous flux of the lamps and the luminous efficiency of the stable floor, walls and the ceiling on which the light reflects. In dairy cowsheds, a light intensity of 150-200 lux should be achieved for dairy-producing cows, and between 100 and 150 lux for dry cows and maternity houses. This is 200 lux for milk goats.
Within VAMIL, there is a requirement that at least 2% of the floor space is present in windows / windows for a large amount of daylight. In sows, a high light intensity at the height of the head has a positive effect on fertility. For this reason, many pig farmers install extra luminaires in the breeding stable, so that a light intensity of 200lux + is achieved. A time switch ensures that this light shines over the sows every day for 14 to 16 hours.
Light is an important concept for cattle. Light has an effect on growth and development, fertility and milk production. For young cattle it is possible to achieve accelerated growth by applying a light regime of 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness. With a dense light regime, the animals use the feed more efficiently. Short day lengths stimulate the storage of fat in the muscles of the post-adolescent young cattle while long day lengths accelerate the arrival of puberty in young cattle. With cows, long day lengths shorten the time between calving and insemination. Light affects the sleep hormone melatonin.
Research in 2003 has shown that at a light level of at least 150 lux during a period of 16 hours a day followed by a dark period of 8 hours the production of Melatonin is reduced. Extending the natural light period to 16 hours of light and 8 hours of dark causes an increase in milk production from 6% to as much as 15%. Cows that are exposed to long day lengths generally spend more time lying down, stand less and travel fewer meters per hour. As a result, these animals will use less energy for the basal metabolic rate. The feed intake is therefore spent more on milk production. For dry cows, however, a short day length and longer dark period is recommended. The rule is actually 8 hours of light and 16 hours of darkness. During the first four months of the subsequent lactation, the daily milk production will be three kilograms higher. When setting up the stable it is wise to take this into account by keeping the cows standing dry on one side of the stable.
Light controls the most important biological rhythms in laying hens. A change in daylight length determines the time of sexual maturity. A long day with 14 to 16 hours of continuous light maintains the laying performance. Both mother animals and other laying hens are increasingly seeing "cannibalism". The use of red light can stop this "pickle". For example, there are LED lighting fixtures on the market that can switch and dim the light in both white and red. For more information, visit WWW.ECOLINE3.NL. This system has the great advantage that action can be taken quickly and when selecting animals it is possible to work in the white light and then switch back to the red light after selection. In broilers, a 24-hour light program with a brightness of 20 lux is run when the chickens are set up, halfway through the fattening process it is reduced to 5 to 10 lux with an 8-hour light and 4-hour dark interval. Shortly before display, the illumination intensity is increased again to 20 to 30 lux and the light day is extended to 24 hours. Broiler houses can be equipped with LED lighting or special Ultra flood luminaires, creating an even light blanket. The energy saving compared to traditional fluorescent lighting is around 65%.